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Small Food Producers Under Threat from Food Safety Modernization Act

Small Food Producers Under Threat from Food Safety Modernization Act

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration seeks public comments on two draft food safety rules, under the Food Safety Modernization Act (2011). The rules will significantly impact small food growers, who may now be required to meet a number of food safety requirements on par with large, corporate food producers.


This study examined whether the causal relationships of protection motivation theory (PMT) can be applied to explain and predict the public's behavioural intentions for safe food choice through protection motivation of health and well-being promotion in Taiwan. In addition, the public's perceived food risk management quality and perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals were considered in the PMT model. The results of structural equation modelling indicated that, compared with the original PMT model, the extended PMT model demonstrates higher explanatory and predictive power of a person's protection motivation to mitigate food safety problems, but lower explanatory and predictive power of a person's behavioural intentions to make safe food choices. The empirical results drawn from the extended PMT model revealed that in addition to perceived vulnerability regarding the threat of food safety scandals and perceived self-efficacy, a person's perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals is a significant predictor of his or her protection motivation, which subsequently influences his or her behavioural intentions regarding safe food choices.

Mei-Fang Chen is a Professor in Department of Business Management, Tatung University, Taiwan. She received a Doctoral Degree from the Institute of Business & Management at National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan in 2004. Her teaching and research interests include consumer behaviour research and decision sciences. She had published her academic research works in Risk Analysis, Health, Risk, & Society, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Business Ethics, Environment and Behaviour, Ethics & Behaviour, Appetite, Food Control, Food Quality & Preference, British Food Journal, The Service Industries Journal, Technovation etc. Her email address is < [email protected] >.


This study examined whether the causal relationships of protection motivation theory (PMT) can be applied to explain and predict the public's behavioural intentions for safe food choice through protection motivation of health and well-being promotion in Taiwan. In addition, the public's perceived food risk management quality and perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals were considered in the PMT model. The results of structural equation modelling indicated that, compared with the original PMT model, the extended PMT model demonstrates higher explanatory and predictive power of a person's protection motivation to mitigate food safety problems, but lower explanatory and predictive power of a person's behavioural intentions to make safe food choices. The empirical results drawn from the extended PMT model revealed that in addition to perceived vulnerability regarding the threat of food safety scandals and perceived self-efficacy, a person's perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals is a significant predictor of his or her protection motivation, which subsequently influences his or her behavioural intentions regarding safe food choices.

Mei-Fang Chen is a Professor in Department of Business Management, Tatung University, Taiwan. She received a Doctoral Degree from the Institute of Business & Management at National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan in 2004. Her teaching and research interests include consumer behaviour research and decision sciences. She had published her academic research works in Risk Analysis, Health, Risk, & Society, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Business Ethics, Environment and Behaviour, Ethics & Behaviour, Appetite, Food Control, Food Quality & Preference, British Food Journal, The Service Industries Journal, Technovation etc. Her email address is < [email protected] >.


This study examined whether the causal relationships of protection motivation theory (PMT) can be applied to explain and predict the public's behavioural intentions for safe food choice through protection motivation of health and well-being promotion in Taiwan. In addition, the public's perceived food risk management quality and perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals were considered in the PMT model. The results of structural equation modelling indicated that, compared with the original PMT model, the extended PMT model demonstrates higher explanatory and predictive power of a person's protection motivation to mitigate food safety problems, but lower explanatory and predictive power of a person's behavioural intentions to make safe food choices. The empirical results drawn from the extended PMT model revealed that in addition to perceived vulnerability regarding the threat of food safety scandals and perceived self-efficacy, a person's perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals is a significant predictor of his or her protection motivation, which subsequently influences his or her behavioural intentions regarding safe food choices.

Mei-Fang Chen is a Professor in Department of Business Management, Tatung University, Taiwan. She received a Doctoral Degree from the Institute of Business & Management at National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan in 2004. Her teaching and research interests include consumer behaviour research and decision sciences. She had published her academic research works in Risk Analysis, Health, Risk, & Society, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Business Ethics, Environment and Behaviour, Ethics & Behaviour, Appetite, Food Control, Food Quality & Preference, British Food Journal, The Service Industries Journal, Technovation etc. Her email address is < [email protected] >.


This study examined whether the causal relationships of protection motivation theory (PMT) can be applied to explain and predict the public's behavioural intentions for safe food choice through protection motivation of health and well-being promotion in Taiwan. In addition, the public's perceived food risk management quality and perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals were considered in the PMT model. The results of structural equation modelling indicated that, compared with the original PMT model, the extended PMT model demonstrates higher explanatory and predictive power of a person's protection motivation to mitigate food safety problems, but lower explanatory and predictive power of a person's behavioural intentions to make safe food choices. The empirical results drawn from the extended PMT model revealed that in addition to perceived vulnerability regarding the threat of food safety scandals and perceived self-efficacy, a person's perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals is a significant predictor of his or her protection motivation, which subsequently influences his or her behavioural intentions regarding safe food choices.

Mei-Fang Chen is a Professor in Department of Business Management, Tatung University, Taiwan. She received a Doctoral Degree from the Institute of Business & Management at National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan in 2004. Her teaching and research interests include consumer behaviour research and decision sciences. She had published her academic research works in Risk Analysis, Health, Risk, & Society, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Business Ethics, Environment and Behaviour, Ethics & Behaviour, Appetite, Food Control, Food Quality & Preference, British Food Journal, The Service Industries Journal, Technovation etc. Her email address is < [email protected] >.


This study examined whether the causal relationships of protection motivation theory (PMT) can be applied to explain and predict the public's behavioural intentions for safe food choice through protection motivation of health and well-being promotion in Taiwan. In addition, the public's perceived food risk management quality and perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals were considered in the PMT model. The results of structural equation modelling indicated that, compared with the original PMT model, the extended PMT model demonstrates higher explanatory and predictive power of a person's protection motivation to mitigate food safety problems, but lower explanatory and predictive power of a person's behavioural intentions to make safe food choices. The empirical results drawn from the extended PMT model revealed that in addition to perceived vulnerability regarding the threat of food safety scandals and perceived self-efficacy, a person's perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals is a significant predictor of his or her protection motivation, which subsequently influences his or her behavioural intentions regarding safe food choices.

Mei-Fang Chen is a Professor in Department of Business Management, Tatung University, Taiwan. She received a Doctoral Degree from the Institute of Business & Management at National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan in 2004. Her teaching and research interests include consumer behaviour research and decision sciences. She had published her academic research works in Risk Analysis, Health, Risk, & Society, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Business Ethics, Environment and Behaviour, Ethics & Behaviour, Appetite, Food Control, Food Quality & Preference, British Food Journal, The Service Industries Journal, Technovation etc. Her email address is < [email protected] >.


This study examined whether the causal relationships of protection motivation theory (PMT) can be applied to explain and predict the public's behavioural intentions for safe food choice through protection motivation of health and well-being promotion in Taiwan. In addition, the public's perceived food risk management quality and perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals were considered in the PMT model. The results of structural equation modelling indicated that, compared with the original PMT model, the extended PMT model demonstrates higher explanatory and predictive power of a person's protection motivation to mitigate food safety problems, but lower explanatory and predictive power of a person's behavioural intentions to make safe food choices. The empirical results drawn from the extended PMT model revealed that in addition to perceived vulnerability regarding the threat of food safety scandals and perceived self-efficacy, a person's perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals is a significant predictor of his or her protection motivation, which subsequently influences his or her behavioural intentions regarding safe food choices.

Mei-Fang Chen is a Professor in Department of Business Management, Tatung University, Taiwan. She received a Doctoral Degree from the Institute of Business & Management at National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan in 2004. Her teaching and research interests include consumer behaviour research and decision sciences. She had published her academic research works in Risk Analysis, Health, Risk, & Society, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Business Ethics, Environment and Behaviour, Ethics & Behaviour, Appetite, Food Control, Food Quality & Preference, British Food Journal, The Service Industries Journal, Technovation etc. Her email address is < [email protected] >.


This study examined whether the causal relationships of protection motivation theory (PMT) can be applied to explain and predict the public's behavioural intentions for safe food choice through protection motivation of health and well-being promotion in Taiwan. In addition, the public's perceived food risk management quality and perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals were considered in the PMT model. The results of structural equation modelling indicated that, compared with the original PMT model, the extended PMT model demonstrates higher explanatory and predictive power of a person's protection motivation to mitigate food safety problems, but lower explanatory and predictive power of a person's behavioural intentions to make safe food choices. The empirical results drawn from the extended PMT model revealed that in addition to perceived vulnerability regarding the threat of food safety scandals and perceived self-efficacy, a person's perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals is a significant predictor of his or her protection motivation, which subsequently influences his or her behavioural intentions regarding safe food choices.

Mei-Fang Chen is a Professor in Department of Business Management, Tatung University, Taiwan. She received a Doctoral Degree from the Institute of Business & Management at National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan in 2004. Her teaching and research interests include consumer behaviour research and decision sciences. She had published her academic research works in Risk Analysis, Health, Risk, & Society, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Business Ethics, Environment and Behaviour, Ethics & Behaviour, Appetite, Food Control, Food Quality & Preference, British Food Journal, The Service Industries Journal, Technovation etc. Her email address is < [email protected] >.


This study examined whether the causal relationships of protection motivation theory (PMT) can be applied to explain and predict the public's behavioural intentions for safe food choice through protection motivation of health and well-being promotion in Taiwan. In addition, the public's perceived food risk management quality and perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals were considered in the PMT model. The results of structural equation modelling indicated that, compared with the original PMT model, the extended PMT model demonstrates higher explanatory and predictive power of a person's protection motivation to mitigate food safety problems, but lower explanatory and predictive power of a person's behavioural intentions to make safe food choices. The empirical results drawn from the extended PMT model revealed that in addition to perceived vulnerability regarding the threat of food safety scandals and perceived self-efficacy, a person's perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals is a significant predictor of his or her protection motivation, which subsequently influences his or her behavioural intentions regarding safe food choices.

Mei-Fang Chen is a Professor in Department of Business Management, Tatung University, Taiwan. She received a Doctoral Degree from the Institute of Business & Management at National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan in 2004. Her teaching and research interests include consumer behaviour research and decision sciences. She had published her academic research works in Risk Analysis, Health, Risk, & Society, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Business Ethics, Environment and Behaviour, Ethics & Behaviour, Appetite, Food Control, Food Quality & Preference, British Food Journal, The Service Industries Journal, Technovation etc. Her email address is < [email protected] >.


This study examined whether the causal relationships of protection motivation theory (PMT) can be applied to explain and predict the public's behavioural intentions for safe food choice through protection motivation of health and well-being promotion in Taiwan. In addition, the public's perceived food risk management quality and perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals were considered in the PMT model. The results of structural equation modelling indicated that, compared with the original PMT model, the extended PMT model demonstrates higher explanatory and predictive power of a person's protection motivation to mitigate food safety problems, but lower explanatory and predictive power of a person's behavioural intentions to make safe food choices. The empirical results drawn from the extended PMT model revealed that in addition to perceived vulnerability regarding the threat of food safety scandals and perceived self-efficacy, a person's perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals is a significant predictor of his or her protection motivation, which subsequently influences his or her behavioural intentions regarding safe food choices.

Mei-Fang Chen is a Professor in Department of Business Management, Tatung University, Taiwan. She received a Doctoral Degree from the Institute of Business & Management at National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan in 2004. Her teaching and research interests include consumer behaviour research and decision sciences. She had published her academic research works in Risk Analysis, Health, Risk, & Society, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Business Ethics, Environment and Behaviour, Ethics & Behaviour, Appetite, Food Control, Food Quality & Preference, British Food Journal, The Service Industries Journal, Technovation etc. Her email address is < [email protected] >.


This study examined whether the causal relationships of protection motivation theory (PMT) can be applied to explain and predict the public's behavioural intentions for safe food choice through protection motivation of health and well-being promotion in Taiwan. In addition, the public's perceived food risk management quality and perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals were considered in the PMT model. The results of structural equation modelling indicated that, compared with the original PMT model, the extended PMT model demonstrates higher explanatory and predictive power of a person's protection motivation to mitigate food safety problems, but lower explanatory and predictive power of a person's behavioural intentions to make safe food choices. The empirical results drawn from the extended PMT model revealed that in addition to perceived vulnerability regarding the threat of food safety scandals and perceived self-efficacy, a person's perceived product safety liability of food providers involved in food safety scandals is a significant predictor of his or her protection motivation, which subsequently influences his or her behavioural intentions regarding safe food choices.

Mei-Fang Chen is a Professor in Department of Business Management, Tatung University, Taiwan. She received a Doctoral Degree from the Institute of Business & Management at National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan in 2004. Her teaching and research interests include consumer behaviour research and decision sciences. She had published her academic research works in Risk Analysis, Health, Risk, & Society, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Journal of Business Ethics, Environment and Behaviour, Ethics & Behaviour, Appetite, Food Control, Food Quality & Preference, British Food Journal, The Service Industries Journal, Technovation etc. Her email address is < [email protected] >.