To celebrate their 10-year anniversary, Noma is demolishing their kitchen
2013 has been a big year for Noma. After a norovirus outbreak in February and being bumped from its perch as the world’s best restaurant to the second best, chef/owner Rene Redzepi is ready for a fresh start. They’re taking to the most important part of their operation, the kitchen, and rebuilding it anew.
On their website, Noma announced that the renovation is a gift to themselves for their 10-year anniversary. And despite the health scare in February, their past ten years are definitely worth celebrating. In such a short time, this Copenhagen-based restaurant went from being a small, unheard of eatery with about ten employees, to the best restaurant in the world. Today they have about fifty employees, twenty of whom work in the front of the house, and in 2011 they renovated their upstairs to be a “collaborative and comfortable space” with an office and a test kitchen.
Now, they plan to destroy their current “jigsaw puzzle of kitchen equipment and workspaces,” and rebuild it to become a fully equipped, improved, and aesthetically appealing station for chefs to create their culinary masterpieces. They hope the new kitchen will improve service and serve as a communal environment for their chefs.
In order to follow through with their plan, they will close on July First. Renovations are planned to be finished by the 20th, and the restaurant will reopen soon after on August First.
Skyler Bouchard is a junior writer at the Daily Meal. Follow her on twitter at @skylerbouchard.
Noma to Rebuild Kitchen this July - Recipes
Bring the World Into Your Kitchen With These Michelin-Star Cookbooks
These books offer a glimpse into the culinary genius behind some of the world's best restaurants.
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In 1889, auto industry magnates Andre and Edouard Michelin came up with an innovative marketing tool to sell tires: they began publishing travel guides and maps to promote road tourism. By the 1920s, the guide had evolved from an advertising ploy into an authoritative dining guide. The brothers seized the opportunity and hired a team of “mystery diners” who secretly reviewed restaurants and awarded stars to the best of them. Today, Michelin guides remain a trusted source for gourmands around the globe.
Here are eight cookbooks that will help you channel the culinary genius of Michelin-star restaurateurs at home.
The Dishes of Noma
For a long time, the phrase “Scandinavian cuisine” has conjured images of herring, reindeer jerky, and infinite winter potatoes. But Rene Redzepi is changing that perception. His Copenhagen restaurant, Noma, was named the Best Restaurant in the World at the San Pellegrino 50 Best Restaurants awards last summer. And he’s joined Phaidon to publish an epic cookbook/visual history called Noma: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine, in stores now. Here are a few of the dishes from his book. “Blueberries Surrounded by Their Natural Environment” Pretend you’ve picked the fruit yourself, surrounded by spruce trees (spruce granita) and fragrant groundcover (thyme oil, wood sorrel, and heather). Redzepi learned that spruce shoots were edible by watching animals nibble at the trees in spring. From Noma: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine (Phaidon Press, $49.95) by Rene Redzepi, www.phaidon.com © Ditte Isager / courtesy Phaidon Press
“Langoustines and Sea Flavors”The “dirt” is rye bread crumbs the creature is a sauteed langoustine the green dots are an oyster-parsley emulsion. Redzepi also serves live shrimp and oysters steamed in seawater. From Noma: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine (Phaidon Press, $49.95) by Rene Redzepi, www.phaidon.com
“Dessert of Flowers”Elderflower mousse, rose hip meringue, violet syrup and skyr (Icelandic yogurt) sorbet. From Noma: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine (Phaidon Press, $49.95) by Rene Redzepi, www.phaidon.com
“Vegetable Field”The “soil” is made of malt flour and hazelnut flour. It’s all the fun of foraging without the work. The joke is reminiscent of the “Oysters and Pearls” and “Macaroni and Cheese” cheekiness of Redzepi’s former boss Thomas Keller. From Noma: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine (Phaidon Press, $49.95) by Rene Redzepi, www.phaidon.com
“Smoked Quail Eggs”Yes, that’s really hay, and it’s listed in the ingredients for the recipe. The scent of freshly burned hay is essential, imparting atmosphere to the dish and the whole dining room. From Noma: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine (Phaidon Press, $49.95) by Rene Redzepi, www.phaidon.com
Rene RedzepiAt a New York Public Library talk with Momofuku chef David Chang and former Gourmet editor-in-chief Ruth Reichl, he told the audience about a meal he made with “utterly old, shitty carrots.”
David Chang, Ruth Reichl, and Rene Redzepi
RR: “It looks like a beautiful chive–” DC: “It looks like grass. And I thought, There’s no way I’m eating, like, lawn.” Jori Klein
Radishes in Soil à la Noma Recipe
I first heard about Rene Redzepi’s Copenhagen restaurant Noma when I attended the 2008 edition of the Omnivore Food Festival in Deauville, a gastronomic event during which high-profile chefs from France and beyond are invited to cook live on stage.
He has since received many more accolades as the herald of a refreshing and talented new wave of Scandinavian chefs. His forager’s approach seems to celebrate nature at its most generous, yes, but also at its roughest, revealing its beauty even when rocks and roots and wind are all it has to offer*.
Among the dishes Redzepi presented that day was a trompe l’oeil vegetable field: served on a warmed slab of stone, baby root vegetables were planted in a layer of mashed potatoes, then topped with a soil-like layer of malt and hazelnut flour crumbs.
Radishes in soil have become a signature amuse-bouche at Noma: radishes with their leaves on are served in a terracotta pot that contains a creamy herbed dip at the bottom, and malt and hazelnut crumbs on top.
I later heard about a variation on this idea that’s become a signature amuse-bouche at Noma: radiser, jord og urteemulsion (radishes, soil and herb emulsion) involves radishes with their leaves on, served in a terracotta pot that contains a creamy herbed dip at the bottom, and the same crumbs on top.
I located an Observer article in which Redzepi gave a recipe for his vegetable field, including directions to make his dehydrated “maltsoil.” But then I also found a few blog references to a recipe that was published in the Figaro Madame late last year and drawn from Trish Deseine’s book Comme au resto, wherein the soil is made, more simply, from slices of dark bread.
It is the route I opted for, grinding dried-up slices of my sourdough chocolate bread, which is not sweetened at all, and using a mix of fresh cheese and yogurt for the herbed layer.
I’m always looking for novel ways to serve radishes** beyond the classic radish/butter/salt trio, and these radishes in soil are a whimsical and tasty one. I had fun assembling the containers — two small bowls and one square little dish like a gardening box — and served them at apéritif time, as a light companion to pre-dinner drinks. Once all the radishes had been consumed, there was some herbed cheese leftover in the bowls, so I cut thin slices of fresh baguette to scoop it up.
I dream of organizing a Danish getaway around a Noma reservation — Copenhaguen is just a two-hour flight from Paris after all — and some day I will, but in the meantime I’ll just munch on my radishes in soil, and dive into the book Noma: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine.
* Learn more about new Scandinavian cuisine by reading the Manifesto for the New Nordic Kitchen. And if you’re curious about Redzepi’s cuisine, a few bloggers have posted pictures of their meals at Noma: see the appetite-whetting reports on Chuckeats, A Life Worth Eating, Gourmet Traveller and Food Snob.
Former Noma chef Thomas Frebel is doing his part to spread the iconic Denmark restaurant's influence worldwide. On April 26, Frebel announced that he would be opening INUA in Tokyo on June 29—though the restaurant is now taking reservations.
Pastry chef Angela Garbacz is accustomed to freezing temperatures in Lincoln, Nebraska, where she runs her bakery Goldenrod Pastries. And that's a good thing: When she took a trip to Copenhagen last month, it was right during what’s now known as the “Big Chill,” the lowest recorded temperatures in Europe.
Alice and Fejsal’s White Bean Stew with Pita Bread and Baba Ganoush
During the time we’ve been closed, our team wanted to find a way to cook for each other and stay connected from a distance. Each week, two of our chefs have volunteered their time to cook take away meals for the team and their families. The prepared meals get picked up each day in shifts, just outside the restaurant – enough time for a quick smile and wave hello. We’ve done this over the past month, and the meals have been so delicious that we’d like to share some of our recipes to stay connected to you, too.
500 g all-purpose flour
300 g water
30 g olive oil
30 g fresh yeast
25 g salt
1 teaspoon honey
1 teaspoon yogurt
1 teaspoon sugar
olive oil for brushing
(plus any seasoning you like to finish the pita bread, we used a spice mix of black pepper, sumac, coriander seeds, and a touch of salt, but rubs like Za’atar or Baharat would be great too)
Using a sieve, sift the flour into a bowl to ensure there’re no lumps, and add in the salt and sugar too.
Combine the liquids and fresh yeast in the bowl of an electric mixer and set it to low speed for 3 to 5 minutes with a whisk attachment. If you don’t have a countertop mixer, this can of course also be done hand.
Slowly add in the dry ingredients at low speed. When everything’s in the bowl, bring the mixer to medium speed for about 3 minutes or until the dough comes together. Then finish mixing at high speed for 1 minute to develop the gluten a bit more. (If you’re doing this by hand, knead the dough for 3-5 minutes.)
Transfer the dough to a baking tray dusted with a bit of flour and keep it covered with a wet towel and cling film and let it proof at room temperature for 1 hour.
Once the dough has risen, use a knife to cut out 50 gram balls (a bit bigger than a golf ball) and place them onto a floured countertop. Shape the portions of dough by forming a cup with the palm of your hand rolling the them on the counter in a circular motion until they form tight balls. Once they’re all rolled out, place them back onto the tray, again covered with wet towels and cling film and let them proof for 30 minutes more.
Once proofed, place each ball, one at a time, onto your countertop dusted with flour and roll them out with a rolling pin into thin flatbreads, about 1.5 cm thick.
You can bake the pita breads in a very hot oven set to 250° Celsius, on a BBQ, directly on hot coals, or in a hot, dry pan on the stove until they puff and the dough is cooked from within, which should take just a few minutes.
Once cooked and while still hot, brush the pita breads with a bit of olive oil and season with a sprinkle of salt and seasonings of your choice.
White Bean Stew
500 g large white beans, soaked in ample water overnight at room temperature
2 large carrots
1 large leeks
1 head fennel
1 white onion, skin on and cut in half widthwise
5 large leaves kale, per person
1 head garlic, cut in half widthwise
3 sprigs rosemary
4 sprigs dill
2½ L vegetable stock
With your bean soaked overnight, drain them of their water and transfer them to a pot to simmer in the vegetable stock, which can be made from vegetables you have in your fridge staples like onion, carrot and celery all work well. Don’t season the beans with salt yet as they’ll take a very long time to cook. Bring the beans up to just a boil and then drop the pot to a simmer over low heat.
Pick the leaves off the sprigs of dill and parsley and reserve the tender tips to use as garnish to finish the soup. Reserve the herb stems too.
Cut your carrots, leeks, fennel and scallions into small pieces, roughly the same size of the beans. Roast them in a pan with olive oil over medium-high heat until they’ve lightly caramelized but haven’t fully cooked, and then set them aside.
In the same pan, take the onion and the head of garlic and char them, cut side down until they blacken. Once charred place them in a small piece of muslin or cheese cloth along with the herb stems, and the rosemary and tie up the parcel with kitchen twine (like a sachet) to infuse into the stew for the rest of the cooking period, at least 30 to 45 minutes.
Cut the leaves of kale into 3 cm wide strips and toss it in a bowl with enough olive oil to coat the leaves lightly. Place the chopped kale onto a baking tray, evenly spread out, and roast it in the oven until the edges begin to brown, then take it out and set it aside. Take the time now to also chop the majority of the leaves of picked dill and parsley.
When the beans are ¾ of the way cooked, to the point that they have just a bit of bite to them, add your chopped vegetables and keep simmering the stew on low heat until everything is pleasantly tender. Remove the sachet of aromatics and finish the stew with the chopped herbs. Season the stew with salt, a bit more olive oil, and some fresh lemon juice to taste. Add the roasted kale just before serving it, and top the portions with the reserved herbs.
2 yellow bell peppers
2 cloves garlic
1 small bunch parsley
The key to making good baba ghanoush is to char the eggplants well, either on the barbecue or directly on hot coals (if you don’t have a barbecue you could do this over the flame on your stove top, or under the broiler in your oven). Turning them often, char all sides of the eggplants’ skins until well burned. Don’t be afraid here the char is needed to impart a smoky flavor to the finished dish. Once charred, if they aren’t yet juicy and knife tender all the way through, you can finish them by cooking them in the oven at around 170° Celsius. Once cooked, allow them to cool to the point where you can handle them, and then peel the eggplants, discarding the burnt skins. Chop the flesh into rough 1 cm chunks with a knife and reserve.
You’ll also need to cook the yellow pepper and scallions on the barbecue and directly on the charcoal (alternatively on your stove top or under the broiler), but not to the point of severely charring like the eggplant—the point here is to get a bit of char on their surface and allow the vegetables to and steam through from within. Coat the vegetables in a bit of olive oil first to help with the cooking. When the vegetables are cooked to your liking, remove the seeds from the peppers, but keep the skin on and chop them and the scallion to the same size as the eggplant flesh (charred pepper skin is delicious in the baba ghanoush). Also save all of the delicious cooking juices that come from the pepper! You can use it to dress a salad.
Finely mince the garlic and the parsley tops (the stems can also be sliced thinly for a bit of crunch and freshness). Then mix everything together, season with the tahini and olive oil, as well as salt to taste.
Make one of Noma’s secret flavor bombs in your own kitchen
If you’ve been wondering what to do with your crockpot ever since you bought an Instant Pot, I have three suggestions for you: Use it for warming drinks such as spiced apple cider, hot toddies, or mulled wine at your next winter party. Make your stuffing in it at Thanksgiving, and pop the inner container in the oven after the turkey comes out to crisp up the top.
Or, most impressively, use it to ferment garum—an ancient Roman concoction as pungent and useful as Vietnamese fish sauce—from the new book, Foundations of Flavor: The Noma Guide to Fermentation.
Noma, René Redzepi’s restaurant in Copenhagen, is famous for using intensely local Scandinavian ingredients including foraged mushrooms, reindeer, lichens, and scurvy grass, treated with methods new and old, and from around the world. The book comes out of several years of experiments in the Noma fermentation lab—which started out as a shipping container converted into a space perfect for wild experimentation, transforming everything from gooseberries to grasshoppers into vinegars, pickles, misos, and kombucha. In Noma’s new location, the lab was expanded and incorporated into the design of the restaurant.
Redzepi told me over the phone that he knew he wanted to bring the deep umami-packed flavor of Southeast Asian fish sauces and shrimp pastes into the kitchen at Noma. “We tried to understand whether there was any old tradition within our region for fish sauce already,” he said. “It turns out that there is a little bit—people used to use the pickling brine from herring, but it’s more salty. It doesn’t have, you know, that funky goodness.”
In researching fish sauce, Redzepi and David Zilber, director of the fermentation lab and co-author, became a obsessed with the idea of making a modern garum. According to the two chefs, garum was first made about 2,500 years ago, in the port city of Carthage, in present-day Tunisia. Surplus tuna, mackerel, anchovies, and sardines were chopped into small pieces, packed into limestone vats with salt, covered to keep flies out, and and left alone for months. “The heat of the sun would effectively cook the fish, while the salinity would act as a safeguard against the propagation of harmful microbes,” they write. “Most important, the guts of the fish contained enzymes that fueled the transformation from vat of fish parts to potent seasoning.”
When the Romans sacked Carthage during the second Punic Wars, they took garum with them, and it remained a vital flavoring throughout the Roman empire, with versions for nobles and slaves alike, priced accordingly. The ruins of garum factories have been found in Spain, Portugal and North Africa.
Food historian Sally Grainger says that garum production slowed when the Roman government imposed a high tax on salt, and because of pirate attacks on fishing villages, and in time it largely disappeared from European food culture. The modern fish, shrimp, and squid sauces and pastes produced in Southeast Asia follow much the same process, but usually with a higher salt content.
For Noma’s garum, the fermentation lab mixes different proteins with water, salt and koji, a fungus traditionally used to ferment soybeans into soy sauce and miso. “Koji steps in and does the job of the digestive enzymes in the guts of fish, yielding a finished product with as much umami as the traditional method, but far more pleasant smell,” Redzepi and Zilber write.
The proteins they’ve used have varied widely. Recipes for beef, squid, bee pollen, squid, and rose and shrimp garums are all included in the book. ”What was really the special one was when we did a grasshopper garum,” says Redzepi.
At Noma, one of the most popular dishes, crab with egg yolks, relies upon garum: Chefs whisk 15 grams of beef garum with four egg yolks and use the incredibly rich sauce that results to finish the dish. Redzepi also suggests whisking two large spoonfuls of parmesan into the egg yolk sauce to dress hot pasta, with some freshly ground pepper on top. An even simpler use is adding a spoonful to your ground beef before you make burger patties to season them from the inside out, and add an umami bomb at the same time.
Noma’s beef garum takes a kilo of ground meat and turns it into 1.5 liters of intense umami flavor to be meted out by the teaspoon. And in this way, Garum is an especially potent representation of what Redzepi is doing at Noma. Conscientious chefs and eaters often speak of the heavy toll meat production takes on the planet. But by promoting the idea of using meat as a seasoning—rather than the center of the plate—Noma actually shows a way to eat with the environment.
With grasshoppers they take it one step further, creating intense flavor from an underused source of protein. “We didn’t really know how to cook them, or even how to make them look appetizing,” Redzepi said. “When we realized they are closely related to shrimp, grasshoppers, we simply thought to ourselves, let’s try to do, not a shrimp sauce, a shrimp garum, but a grasshopper one…the end result was this incredibly potent liquid. It’s in between a mix of chocolate and soy sauce with maybe even some Mexican molé-type of complexity to it.”
At Noma, garums are made in a temperature-controlled fermentation chamber and there are instructions for building a self-contained home version from a speed rack in the book. The good news is a crockpot or a rice cooker, works as well—it’s actually one of the simpler and quicker processes outlined in the book. Your garum is complete in 10 weeks and the only specialty item you need is koji, which you can order from Amazon.
If you’re the kind of cook who would undertake a several-week-long fermentation project to produce an ancient fish sauce, it’s very much worth your time to read Redzepi and Zilber’s introduction to garums, and the science behind their specific process in the book. There are also more than a few garum recipes that have been devised by culinary historians kicking around on the internet.
If grasshoppers are a bridge too far, and raw beef doesn’t appeal, the cooked chicken wing garum recipe in the Noma book might be a good starter garum. In it, roasted chicken wings and chicken bones are fermented with salt and koji, and Redzepi says the garum that emerges after a month in the crockpot is insanely flavorful, transforming even the most basic stock into a deep, rich base for ramen and other soups.
“Think of those few morsels of crisp pan drippings you get when you roast a whole chicken in the oven. Now take that, and concentrate it into a hyper potent liquid and stuff it in a bottle,” he wrote in an email, describing its flavor. “Imagine the way people use Tabasco, as a dash to spice up all sorts of food, but now turn that into the richest roasted chicken jus crossed with soy sauce, that’s meaty and salty and slightly sour and rich.”
Buy The Book
The Noma Guide to Fermentation
People have always associated our restaurant closely with wild food and foraging, but the truth is that the defining pillar of Noma is fermentation. That’s not to say that our food is especially funky or salty or sour or any of the other tastes that people associate with fermentation. It’s not like that. Try to picture French cooking without wine, or Japanese cuisine without shoyu and miso. It’s the same for us when we think about our own food. My hope is that even if you’ve never eaten at Noma, by the time you’ve finished reading our book and made a few of the recipes, you’ll know what I mean. Fermentation isn’t responsible for one specific taste at Noma—it’s responsible for improving everything .
I believe in fermentation wholeheartedly, not only as a way to unlock flavors, but also as a way of making food that feels good to eat. People argue over the correlation between fermented foods and an active gut health. But there’s no denying that I personally feel better eating a diet full of fermented products. When I was growing up, eating at the best restaurants meant feeling sick and full for days, because supposedly everything tasty had to be fatty, salty, and sugary. I dream about the restaurants of the future, where you go not just for an injection of new flavors and experiences, but for something that’s really positive for your mind and body.
Studying the science and history of fermentation, learning to do it ourselves, adapting it to local ingredients, and cooking with the results changed everything at Noma. Once you’ve done the same and have these incredible products at your disposal—whether it’s lacto -fermented fruit, barley miso, koji , or a roasted chicken wing garum—cooking gets easier while your food becomes more complex, nuanced, and delicious.
I believe in fermentation wholeheartedly, not only as a way to unlock flavors, but also as a way of making food that feels good to eat.
There are thousands of products of fermentation, from beer and wine to cheese to kimchi to soy sauce. They’re all dramatically different creations, of course, but they’re unified by the same basic process. Microbes—bacteria, molds, yeasts, or a combination thereof—break down or convert the molecules in food, producing new flavors as a result. Take lacto -fermented pickles, for instance, where bacteria consume sugar and generate lactic acid, souring the vegetables and the brine in which they sit, simultaneously preserving them and rendering them more delicious. Cascades of secondary reactions contribute layers of flavors and aromas that didn’t exist in the original, unfermented product. The best ferments still retain much of their original character, whether that’s a touch of residual sweetness in a carrot vinegar or the floral perfume of wild roses in a rose kombucha, while simultaneously being transformed into something entirely new.
Bringing Restaurant-Style Cooking to the Redzepi Home Kitchen
Yo u might think that being the wife of René Redzepi, chef and owner of the world-renowned Noma, might be challenging if you also love to cook. But you’d be wrong—Nadine Levy Redzepi may well be the best chef in the Redzepi household. “René is not demanding at all. I just think he is appreciative of someone cooking for him, since he spends so much time cooking for others,” she says.
Not only does she help run the Noma franchise, she also runs the household, does all the shopping and cooking for six people, throws together last-minute dinners for guests with aplomb. She even managed to write a best-selling cookbook in her spare time.
Redzepi is the daughter of two street musicians. Her parents met in Paris—her Danish mother was an au pair, her father an English street busker. When they weren’t bouncing from one capital to another and living out of cars and cheap hotels, they returned to Tavira, the tiny Portuguese coastal town where Redzepi was born and where her grandparents had bought them a house.
“Every day seemed to revolve around food and eating,” she says. “I remember pomegranates, warm from the sun, their sweetness, the bitterness of the skin, and the bright pink juice running down my arms and hands.” Neighbors would come to trade tomatoes in exchange for their olives, almonds, and eggs. When they were on the road busking, she would get treated to an ice cream. “I always chose rum raisin or mint chocolate, flavors that remind me of France, and that I don’t eat elsewhere.”
She started cooking early on, mostly porridge and scrambled eggs. But she really became obsessed with cooking at eight, when she happened upon the BBC show Ready Steady Cook as she lay sick in bed. “I was blown away that they could cook three dishes in twenty minutes, and I just grabbed my notepad and wrote everything down.” She felt hungry for the first time in five days.
Photo by Carrie Solomon
Back in Copenhagen, where her aunt lived, Redzepi started working as a waitress at Noma when she was 19 and met René by chance when she got lost looking for linens on her third shift. He offered to help her. Clueless as to who he was, Redzepi asked how long he had been working there.
“From the beginning,” he replied. “You know this is my place, right?” She blushed, went back to work, and replayed the conversation in her head throughout that evening. A month later at a staff party, he threw a piece of bread at her from across the room. The rest is history, she says.
Influenced by her nomadic childhood, her cooking style is eclectic—she’s a fan of big flavor and light ingredients, and not averse to experimenting with whatever her husband brings home. “I love playing around with things like chicken-wing garum and different
She does all this from the Redzepi household’s warm, lived-in kitchen, with its wooden countertops, fireplace, brass sink, and exposed beams. And although her newfound fame has made her an instant celebrity, the guests who have been at their home have always known that Redzepi is much, much more than the wife of a great chef.
Photo by Carrie Solomon
Smoked chili peppers, a gift from a Mexican friend
Cheese, from Paul Cunningham, an English chef in Copenhagen
Royal Belgian caviar—“I honestly like to eat it on really good potato chips with 50 percent full-fat crème fraîche.”
Sun-dried tomatoes, from a former Noma chef
Leftover chicken—“We probably have chicken once a week with roast potatoes.”
Pumpkin seed miso
Kelp salt—“It’s great on steamed rice with some chili de arbol. I even like it on plain yogurt.”
Eggs—“They’re from a woman who used to be my mother’s boss. She had a house in the country and would bring extra eggs to sell to the staff. My mom started buying them for us. René tasted them and wanted them at the restaurant.”
Garum protein—“René brings them home from the restaurant’s fermentation lab.”
Nomite—a Marmite experiment from Noma’s Australia pop-up. “Being half English, I grew up with Marmite. When I feel a little nostalgic, I like to eat it
From Chefs’ Fridges. Used with the permission of Harper Design. Copyright © 2020 by Carrie Solomon and Adrian Moore.